Microcontroller: A Highly Integrated Chip on Machine Processor

viewgreen By viewgreen, 8th Feb 2015 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
Posted in Wikinut>Reviews>Technology>Components

Micro-controller is a small computer that is located inside a chip or IC (integrated circuit) which contains a processor core, memory, and component inputs / outputs that can be programmed. And for another definition that Micro-controller is an IC chip which there is in a microprocessor (UP) and program memory ROM (Read Only Memory) as well as a versatile memory RAM (Random Access Memory).

What is a Microcontroller?

The micro-controller used in the products and devices that can be controlled automatically, such as automobile engine control systems, medical devices, remote control, office machines, and even toys. The use of micro-controller is more economical than a system design that contains a microprocessor, memory, and input / output separately.
As for some of the micro-controller which has facilities ADC (Analog Digital Converter), PLL (Phase Locked Loop), EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) in one package. The uses of micro-controllers in the field of electronic especially for the control electronics are very widespread and popular. Micro-controller is a mini computer in the chip used to control electronic devices, which emphasize efficiency and cost effectiveness. In literal micro-controller can be called "little control" where an electronic system that previously many require supporting components such as IC - TTL (Integrated Circuits - Transistors - Transistors Logic) and CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) can be reduced / minimized and eventually centralized and controlled by this micro-controller.

Understanding Microcontroller

Technically there are only 2 types of RISC and CISC micro-controllers those each of them have children or their own families. RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer: limited instructions but has more amenities. CISC stands for Cscomplex Instruction Set Computer: instruction that can be said to be complete but with adequate facilities.
Micro-controller family of AVR (Alf and Vegard's RISC processor) has a RISC architecture 8 bits, where all instruction is packaged in 16-bit code (16-bits word) and most of the instructions executed in one (1) clock cycles, in contrast to the instruction Micro-controller MCS 51 roommates requires 12 clock cycles. Of course, it happened Because The two types of micro-controller has a different architecture. Tech AVR family of RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing), while the MCS 51 tech CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing).
In general, the AVR can be grouped into four classes, namely family ATtiny, AT90Sxx, the family of ATMEGA and AT86RFxx. Basically what distinguish to each of class is memory, peripherals, and function. In terms of architecture and instruction are used, they can be said to be almost the same. Therefore, used one of the Atmel AVR products, namely ATMEGA 8535/16/32 and AT-Mega 8.
Micro-controller is an IC chip which there is in microprocessors and program memory (ROM) as well as a versatile memory (RAM), even some of the micro-controller which has facilities ADC, PLL, EEPROM in one package or it could be "A digital electronic device having input and output and control with a program that can be written and erased in a special way."
There are several vendors that make the micro-controller in the world including Intel, Microchip, Winbond, Atmel, Philips, Xemics and others. From some of these vendors, in my home country that is most popular to use is micro-controller made by Atmel.
Micro-controller popular first made by Intel in 1976, the 8-bit micro-controller 8748. Intel is part of the MCS-48 micro-controller family. Previously, Texas instruments has marketed the first 4-bit micro-controller that TMS 1000 in 1974. 1000 began to be made since 1971 is a microcomputer on a chip, complete with RAM and ROM.

The Types and How it works?

The micro-controller used in the products and devices that can be controlled automatically, such as automobile engine control systems, medical devices, remote control (remote control), office machines, and even toys. The use of micro-controller is more economical than a system design that contains a microprocessor, memory, and input / output separately.
As mentioned previously, the micro-controller is a digital electronic device that has inputs and outputs as well as process control with a program that can be written and erased in a special way. Simply put how the micro-controller is reading and writing data. A micro-controller can control a digital device or tool when a program has been implanted into the processor core. By doing so, the micro-controller can read the data received as input and then write the data released as output. Performance Automatic control performed by the micro-controller depends on the program instilled by the program makers.
The type micro-controller is technically divided into two types. This division is based on the complexity of the instructions that can be embedded in the micro-controller.

  • The first type is a RISC or Reduces Instruction Set Computer. Instructions that this type is limited, but this micro-controller has more amenities.
  • For the second type is CISC, or Complex Instruction Set Computer. This micro-controller has a more complete instructions, but its facilities are very limited.

You just take a look a video following. This video is intended for beginners unfamiliar with Micro-controller. The basic components of a Micro-controller are compared to a common household PC (Personal Computer) to help reinforce concepts.

Please go and visit here! to learn more.

Conclusions and the Data Credits*

A micro-controller (sometimes abbreviated µC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Micro-controllers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications. Read more here!.
Micro-controller is one of the basic parts of a computer system. Despite having a much smaller form of a personal computer and mainframe computers, micro-controllers built from basic elements are the same. Simply put, the computer will produce a specific output based on the input that accepted and programs undertaken. Like most computers, micro-controllers are devices that do the instructions given to. That is, the main and most important part of a system
computerized program itself is created by a programmer. The program instructs the computer to perform a long braid of simple acts to perform more complex tasks desired by programmer.
Micro-controller typically used for equipment that is not too requires high processing speed. Although there may be between we are imagined to control the microwave oven by using Unix-based systems, controls the microwave oven can be easily using the smallest micro-controller.
Special nature of the micro-controller is small in size, power saving and its flexibilities cause of the micro-controller is suitable for use as logger / recorder data on applications that do not require the presence of the operator.
Following the examples of the systems which are controlled by the micro-controller:

And also here following the Feature of characteristic Micro-controllers:

  • The ability of the CPU that is not too high
  • It have relatively a little to internal memory
  • Volatile memory, whose contents are not lost when the power dies
  • It have integrated to IO ports
  • Bit Processing in Byte
  • Having a command / program is directly related to IO
  • Relatively simple command

For more information to learning about, just go and find on Techtarget and Engineersgarage.

Thank you very much for the stopping by to read this page.:)

~"MICROCONTROLLER" - ©2015| viewgreen for the Wikinut - Unique Contents.

References*:

Images Credit^
Video credit^
The Tutorials video are taking from: Microchip

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Tags

Circuit Analysis, Circuit Boards, Circuits, Computer, Computer Components, Computer Hardware, Computing Devices, Intel, Intel Atom, Memory, Microcontroller, Microprocessor, Ram, Rom, Semicircle, Semiconductor, Semiconductors, Transfer, Transistors

Meet the author

author avatar viewgreen
A CS engineer who loves to write about TI (Innovations), Socials, Cultures & Heritage (Local Wisdom), Humors and others that I am eager and interested to. Thank you! :D

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Comments

author avatar Carol Roach
9th Feb 2015 (#)

well done, I learned a lot from this article

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author avatar viewgreen
10th Feb 2015 (#)

Thank you mark for the moderation and published this article. :)

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Thank you for stopping by to read this page madam. :)

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author avatar Utah Jay
9th Feb 2015 (#)

I am beginning to think that the more I read you the wiser I will become.

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author avatar viewgreen
10th Feb 2015 (#)

Thank you sir for the supporting and I'm appreciate it. I also thank you for stopping by. :)

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author avatar Jenny Heart
10th Feb 2015 (#)

Very informatinve

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author avatar viewgreen
10th Feb 2015 (#)

Thank you for your visit here madam. :)

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author avatar Shamarie
10th Feb 2015 (#)

Great post, Viewgren, you did a great job educating us about the Micro-controller!

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author avatar viewgreen
10th Feb 2015 (#)

Thank you my friend for stopping by with a great comment here. I appreciate it my friend shamarie!

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author avatar Gclick
12th Feb 2015 (#)

Well one and great job my friend. it should be a star page. thanks.

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author avatar viewgreen
12th Feb 2015 (#)

Thank you my friend. and I appreciate with your supporting. :)

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author avatar Colekdikit
13th Feb 2015 (#)

informative posting and good job my friend. thanks

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author avatar viewgreen
29th Apr 2015 (#)

Thank you my friend... :)

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author avatar Ptrikha
27th Apr 2015 (#)

A nice technical overview.

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author avatar viewgreen
29th Apr 2015 (#)

Yours too are great well my friend.

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author avatar viewgreen
29th Apr 2015 (#)

Yours too are great well my friend.

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