Review on Livestock & Forage Research in Nepal

Rameshwar S Pande By Rameshwar S Pande, 6th Feb 2011 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL http://nut.bz/8tw-ev15/
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This book is a collection of research/ review papers of the author during his tenure under Government of Nepal including other International non-government Organisation in Nepal. The book includes mainly the livestock husbandry and forage, pastures review works. It is hoped that the boo is useful to the researchers, professional and all interested in Nepalese agriculture and natural resources management.

Table of Contents

[/bTable of Contents
Preface:
Table of contents:
Abbreviations used:
Part I: Livestock Research Institutes in Nepal
Part II: Author’s Published articles
1. Animal husbandry NOTHING TO BE COMPLACENT ABOUT
2. Sheep farming: A CASE FOR PROMOTION
3. Livestock farming THE YAK & THE HIMALAYAN PASTORALIST
4. Livestock development IN SEARCH O GREENER PASTURES
5. Transfrontier movement of livestock THE DEPENDENCE STILL REMAINS
6. Chauri production systems in upper slope areas, Sindhupalchok, Nepal
7. Livestock, Farmers and Environment
8. Need for Agro-Silviculture to Meet the Demands of Livestock Feed in Nepal
9. Forage and Pasture Development and Forage Seed Production in Nepal
10. Status and Scope of Forage Seed Production in Nepal
11. Potential for Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L) Seed Production in Nepal
12. Performance of White clover (Trifolium repens l ) in Nepal
13. Promising Species for Fodder and Pasture Development in Nepal
14. Ensuring forage supply from Nepal’s community forests
15. Potential of Canadian Forage Sorghum in improving fodder supply for small dairy farmer in Nepal 16. Promotion of low cost fodder based milk production systems using Canadian Forage Sorghum Hybrid-30 for the livelihood of the smallholders dairy farmers of Nepal
17. Role of Browse Shrubs/trees as Animal Feed in Nepal
18. Scope of Vetiver grass for income Generation in Rural Areas of Nepal Terai.
19. Pro-poor Community Forage Production Programme in the Nepal Australia Community Resource Management and Livelihoods Project, Nepal.
20. Preference of goats and sheep for browse species under field conditions
21. Status of Rangeland Resources and Strategies for Improvements in Nepal

Abbreviations used:

[/bAbbreviations used:
ABTRACO: Agri-Business and Trade Promotion Multipurpose Cooperative Ltd.
ACAP: Annpurna Conservation Area Project:
ADB: Asian Development Bank
ADO: Agriculture Development Office
ARS: Agricultural Research Station
ATSP: Agro enterprise and technology Systems Project
AusAID: Australian Aid for International Development
BLU: Big Livestock Unit
BS: Bikram Sambat (+
CDO: Chief District Officer
CFD: Community Forestry Division
CFSH-30: Canadian Forage Sorghum Hybrid–30
CP: Crude Protein
DD: Technical Disciplinary Divisions
DDC: Dairy Development Corporation
DFAMS: Department of Food and Agricultural Marketing Services
DLS: Department of Livestock Services
DLSO: District Livestock Services Office
DM: Dry Matter
DMD: Dry Matter Digestibility
DOAD: Department of Agriculture Development
DoF: Department of Forest
DSWC: Department of Soil and Water Conservation
ET: Embryo Transfer
FAO: Food and Agriculture Organisation of United Nations
FAO/RAS/79/121: Himalayan Pasture and Fodder Research Network(Nepal, India, Bhutan Pakistan)
FMD: Foot and Mouth Disease
FUG: Forest Users Group
FY: Fiscal Year
GDP: Gross Domestic Product
GnRH: Gonadotrophin
ha: Hectare
HLFFDP: Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Project
HMG/N: His majesty’s Government of Nepal
IAAS: Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences
ICIMOD: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
IFAD: International Fund for Agricultural Development
INGO: International Non-Governmental Organisation
K: Potash
Kg: Kilo gram
LAC: Lumle Agricultural Centre:
LDD: Livestock Development Division
LDO: Livestock Development Officer
LDP: Livestock Development Project/ Livestock Development Programme
LFTSMF: Livestock Feed Trial and Production Farm
LRMP: Land Resource Mapping Project
LU: Livestock Unit
m: Metre
m2: Metre Sqaure
MOA: Ministry of Agriculture
MOAC: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives
MT: Metric Ton
N: Nitrogen
NARC: Nepal Agricultural Research Council
NARI: National Agricultural Research Institute
NASRI: National Animal Science Research Institute
NACRMLP: Nepal Australia Community Resource Management and Livelihoods Project
NBPDP: Northern Belt Pasture Development Programme
NCRP: National Commodity Research Programs
NEP, 85/007: High Altitude Pasture Development Project, Nepal
NGO: Non- governmental Organisation
NRs: Nepalese Rupees
ODA: Overseas Development Administration of British Government
ORD: Outreach Research Division
% : Per cent
P: Phosphorus
PAC: Pakhribas Agricultural Centre
PFDP: Pasture and Fodder Development Programme
PGDA: Palpa Grass Development Association
PTSMF: Pasture Trial and Seed Multiplication Farm
RAPA: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific of FAO
RARS: Regional Agricultural Research Stations
SAARC: South Asian Association of Regional Countries
SNV: Stichting Nederlandse Viyswilligers (Dutch Volunteer Service)
sq: square
TDN: Total Digestible Nutrient
TLDP: Third Livestock Development Project
TOE: Ton Coal Equivalent
UAE: United Arab Emirates
UG: Users’ Group
UK: United Kingdom
UN: United Nations
UNDP: United Nations Development Programme
UP: Uttar Pradesh
USA: United States of America
USAID: United States Agency for International Development
US$: United states Dollar
VDC: Village Development Committee
Yr: Year

Part I: Livestock Research Institutes in Nepal

Part I: Livestock Research Institutes in Nepal


1.0 Introduction:
The research and studies related with the domestic animals/ birds and forage resources are carried out under government, academic institutions and a few private organisations. The major organisations are as follows:

1.1 Nepal Agricultural Research Council:
The sole organisation for the research and studies on animal sciences and avians, is the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), under the ministry of Agriculture and cooperatives, Government of Nepal. It is an apex body to carry out research and generate technologies for different aspects of animal sciences including other sectors of agricultural field in the country. The NARC was established in 1991 as an autonomous organization. For the implementation of research and studies NARC has two major institute viz. i) National Agricultural Research Institute (NARI) and, ii) National Animal Science Research Institute (NASRI). It has 14 National Commodity Research Programs (NCRPs), 4 Regional Agricultural Research Stations (RARSs), 14 Agricultural Research Stations (ARSs), 20 Technical Disciplinary Divisions (DDs) and units .
The NARI deals with the agronomical and horticultural related research It has seven disciplinary divisions such as Agronomy, Agriculture Botany, Soil Science, Plant Pathology, Entomology, Agricultural Engineering, and Horticulture Research.
National Animal Science Research Institute (NASRI) deals mainly with the livestock and fisheries research. It includes five related disciplinary divisions such as Animal Breeding, Animal Nutrition, Animal Health, Pasture and Fodder Research and Fisheries Research. Its overall activities are administered by the Director for NASRI.
The research works related with animal sciences are conducted under NASRI. The NASRI has five disciplinary divisions: Animal Nutrition, Animal Breeding, Animal Health , Pasture and Forage, and Fishery.

i) Animal Nutrition Division:
This division is conducting various research and studies on animal feeds and feeding. It determines the chemical composition of different animal feeds and forages available in various parts of country, developes suitable formula for preparing rations of farm animals birds based on locally available feed resources including the concentrates and agro-industrial by-produces.

ii) Animal Breeding Division:
To improve the native genetic resources and introduced breeds, the division conducts various research and studies aiming to improve the livestock productivity. It conducts breed performance database identify superior genotypes establishes and improves nucleus breeding herds of dairy animals, meat, wool producing animals and egg producing birds, and also importats and tests new and improved genetic materials including frozen semen and embryo.
The divisions has identified a total of 25 native breeds have such as cattle- Lulu, Achhami, Khaila, Terai Pahari and Yak, buffalo- Lime, Parkote and Gaddi, goats- Khari, Terai, Sinhal and Chyangra, sheep- Lampuchhre, Kage, Baruwal and Bhyanglung, pigs- Hurrah, Chwanche and Bampudke, poultry- Sakini, Ghanti Khuile and Puwankh Ulte and horse- Jumli horse.
The resercah findings of the division are i) Jersey crossbreds (50 to 75%) are suitable for Nepalese conditions for higher milk production, ii) Holstein-Friesian should be selected for high intensive management system, iii) The native hill cattle blood level should not be lower than 25% to make effective use of resistant gene to parasites and diseases prevailing in the cattle farming system of Nepal, iv) Khari/Hill goats have been proved to be the most productive breed of goat for hills of Nepal, v) Wool production of native sheep can be increased by crossbreeding with exotic breeds (Polworth, Merino and Border Leicester) of sheep vi) Exotic pig breeds adapted and found productive for our conditions are Hampshire, Yorkshire, Landrace and Pakhribas black pig is suitable breed for the hills of Nepal, vii) Angora rabbits can be successfully reared in the hilly region of Nepal viii) Dual purpose poultry breeds (New Hampshire and Austrolorp) have been recommended for scavenging and semi intensive system, ix) Heat shynchronization protocol is established for indigenous cattle and buffaloes. They are two dose of prostaglandin hormone at 11 days apart (day 0 and at 11 day after 1st injection) to cyclic buffaloes and cattle are effective for bringing them on heat. Similarly, one dose of prostaglandin and two dose of gonadotrophin (GnRH) at 14 days apart to non-cyclic cattle and buffaloes are effective for bringing them on heat , x) Embryo transfer (ET) techniques in cattle established and xi) others.
iii) Animal Health:
To carry out basic and applied research on various aspects of livestock and poultry diseases of economic and zoonotic significance. The division carry problem based research in prioritized diseases and developes strategies for effective treatment and control measures. The division has assessed the animal health situation and losses caused by different diseases in the country and prioritize research program , investigated and developed control strategies against the infectious land noninfectious disease of livestock, poultry, fishes and wild animal population present in the country. Evaluated efficacy of vaccines, drugs and safety of feeds and feed additives for their quality control. Developed and standardization of biological reagents used for livestock disease investigation or diagnosis.
iv) Pasture and Forage:
To generate forage, pasture and agro-forestry management technologies to enhance livestock production and productivity, the division conducts research and studies and programs for pasture and forage seed, saplings production technologies, Different native grass/legume species are identified for their productiveness at different agro ecological zones.
The division identified i) Kamdhenu and Netra variety of Oat for low and mid hill region of Nepal, ii) for winter fodder production cvs Kent, Swan, Omihi are found most promising for high hills, for mid hill region, Caravile, Kent, Swan, Charisma, 83 INC 19 G3, Taiko, 346/2,323 O2 and for Terai, Swan, Amuri, Awapuni, Charisma, Taiko are found suitable variety of oat. iii) For summer fodder production, Teosente, Bajra, Maize, Sorghum with Soyabean, Cowpea, Red bean and Horse gram produced higher fodder.(summer dry period). For silvipastural system different fodder tree and grass/ legume species were identified at different location such as Dhudilo, Faledo, Chuletro and Bains are found better for nursery raising, Khasru is found highest fodder producer 117 kg/tree/year. For high hill region 9 cvs of Rye grass are recommended for green matter and seed productive yields. The combination of white clover, rye grass and cocks foot is good for highest green matter production.
v) Fishery:
The fishery research division has been carrying out research and studies for fresh water fish and trot fish production in Nepal. It has been developed trout breeding technology in farmers’ fields. There are over 20 trout fish farms especially in lalitpur, Nuwakot, Rasuwa and Sindhupalcholk and other districts. It has also developed rice-fish farming technologies and popularised in rice growing areas of Terai and hill districts. The rice-fish integration can increase nearly 12% of additional rice yield, and 300-514 kg fish production per hectare within a rice crop cycle. Similalry, African cat-fish hybrid has been introduced and have been used for the homestead fish farming in small pits and ponds. The air breathing catfish which grow considerably at high rate, accept any supplementary feed, require low oxygen and are resistant to many diseases. Recently, cage fish culture technology in Fewa and Begnash lake, Pokhara has been developed In cage fish culture, advanced fingerlings of about 20-30 g individual body weight are stocked and fed with aquatic weeds available in surrounding water bodies. Substantial achievements in breeding, seed rearing and feed formulation techniques of Sahar (Tor putitora) have been recorded. In pond condition, fry could be reared successfully with more than 60% of survivability from hatchlings. Technological package of fancy carp culture is ready for dissemination. Genetic diversity of Sahar has been studied using allozyme markers. Results revealed that Sahar from Kali Gandaki, Trishuli and Koshi rivers and Phewa lake are con-specific. Translocations of Sahar (for rehabilitation of degraded stock) among these water bodies found possible with minimum genetic risk. Successful breeding of indigenous Gardi fish and production of about 1,700,000 fingerlings of Sahar, Asala, Katle and Gardi have been released in Kaligandaki ‘A’ dam. Breeding success of Aquarium fishes Guppy, Platy, Swordtail, Goldfish and Fancy Carp. Technology exchange on fisheries between Nepal (Rainbow Trout) and Thailand (Fresh Water Prawn) have been agreed.
The NARC has following three Commodity Research Programmes:

i) National Bovine Research Program
To contribute towards increasing the production and productivity of livestock sectors in general and research and development of bovine (Cattle and Buffalo) in particular the program carry out different studies and research. Some of the acheivements are i) Improvement of dairy cattle breed suitable for the mid hills of Nepal, ii) Adoption of Urea, Minerals, Molasses block in farmers field, iii) Study on importance of quality mozzarella cheese and its use in different food items, iv) Study on comparative milk production of cattle based on different feeding practice.

ii) National Sheep and Goat Research Program:
This program carry out goat & sheep research in the country. The major acheivement of the program is lLighting with solar lamps and nylon net enclosure was found to be effective against predation in the migratory sheep and goats.
iii) National Swine and Avian Research Program.
This program carry out research and studies on pig, poultry, turkey, quail and other avians in the country. This program tested Giriraja poultry and introduced at farmers level. The bred gained popularity among the rural farmers in the Eastern and Central regions due to its high carcass yield as well as egg laying capacity with hardiness. The average body weight of Giriraja at 8th, 12th, 16th week was recorded 1.5, 2.6 and 3. kg respectively with average egg laying performance of 160-180 eggs/hen/year.

To carry out various research and studies the NASRI has different research station spread all over country, such as:
• Regional Agricultural Research Station (Mid & Far Western Development Region), Nepalgunj,
• Regional Agricultural Research Station (Western Development Region), Lumle,
• Agricultural Research Station (Fish) Baidam, Pokhara,
• Agricultural Research Station (Fish) Begnas, Pokhara,
• Agricultural Research Station (Goat) Bandipur, Tanahun,
• Regional Agricultural Research Station (Central Development Region), Parwanipur,
• Agricultural Research Station (Pasture) Dhunche Rasuwa,
• Agricultural Research Station (Fish) Trisuli, Nuwakot,
• Regional Agricultural Research Station (Eastern Development Region), Tarahara,
• Agricultural Research Station, Pakhribas, Dhankuta
1.2 Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science:
IAAS is an academ institute under Tribhuvan University. It carrying out various reseach and studies on livestock isues in the country and publishing thesis and research journals.

1.3 National Forage and grassland Research Centre:
The Centre was established in 1994 as a research organisation registered with government of Nepal. The centre carry out reseach and studiies on forage, pasture and grasslands of Nepal.
1.4 National Zoonoses and Fod Hygiene Research Centre, Kathmandu
This Centre is is a private research organisation registered with government of Nepal. The centre carry out reseach and studiies on zoonotic and animal disease in Nepal.

Part II: Author’s Published articles

1. 1. Animal husbandry NOTHING TO BE COMPLACENT ABOUT
2. Sheep farming: A CASE FOR PROMOTION
3. Livestock farming THE YAK & THE HIMALAYAN PASTORALIST
4. Livestock development IN SEARCH O GREENER PASTURES
5. Transfrontier movement of livestock THE DEPENDENCE STILL REMAINS
6. Chauri production systems in upper slope areas, Sindhupalchok, Nepal
7. Livestock, Farmers and Environment
8. Need for Agro-Silviculture to Meet the Demands of Livestock Feed in Nepal
9. Forage and Pasture Development and Forage Seed Production in Nepal
10. Status and Scope of Forage Seed Production in Nepal
11. Potential for Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L) Seed Production in Nepal
12. Performance of White clover (Trifolium repens l ) in Nepal
13. Promising Species for Fodder and Pasture Development in Nepal
14. Ensuring forage supply from Nepal’s community forests
15. Potential of Canadian Forage Sorghum in improving fodder supply for small dairy farmer in Nepal 16. Promotion of low cost fodder based milk production systems using Canadian Forage Sorghum Hybrid-30 for the livelihood of the smallholders dairy farmers of Nepal
17. Role of Browse Shrubs/trees as Animal Feed in Nepal
18. Scope of Vetiver grass for income Generation in Rural Areas of Nepal Terai.
19. Pro-poor Community Forage Production Programme in the Nepal Australia Community Resource Management and Livelihoods Project, Nepal.
20. Preference of goats and sheep for browse species under field conditions
21. Status of Rangeland Resources and Strategies for Improvements in Nepal

1. Animal husbandry NOTHING TO BE COMPLACENT ABOUT

1. Animal husbandry NOTHING TO BE COMPLACENT ABOUT

Rameshwar Singh Pande
(Published in ‘The Rising Nepal’ , Daily National Newspaper, Kathmandu, Nepal. May 9, 1996)


LIVESTOCK sector serve human beings by providing animal protein, draught power, manure, wool etc besides cash income and supports for social and religious work. Livestock sector contributes about 18 per cent to total GDP and 38 per cent in agricultural GDP in Nepal. Total livestock products are 0.94 million mt milk, 0.16 million MT of meat, 383 million eggs and 624 MT of wool. The per capita availability of milk, meat and eggs is 48 litres, 8 kgs and 18 pieces respectively. The contribution of livestock in the national economy is increasing.

Livestock density
The major livestock are cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep, pigs and poultry. The livestock density is highest in Nepal, there are 220 numbers of livestock per square kilometer compared with the human density of 141. The total population of cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep are 6.8, 3.3, 5.7 and 0.9 million respectively. Every farm family maintains a few heads of livestock. Even the landless farmers keep some livestock.
In recent years, the population of human beings as well as of livestock have increased substantially. Traditional grazing based livestock production system, high stocking rate beyound the carrying capacity of the natural resources, dairy farming in the urban areas are creating a threat to environmental conservation.
Almost all the tillage works are performed by bullock power. There are 2.8 million oxen and 0.21 million of male buffaloes which are mainly used for agricultural works. The use of imported petroleum products are not only expensive but also causes air pollution and environmental degradation. Livestock provide cheap and environmental friendly energy.
In the mountainous region, livestock are used for transportation of household commodities. A castrated sheep or goat can carry 10-12 kgs and large animals such as Jhopkyo can carry 60-70 kgs. These animals can walk continuously for about 15-20 days with the pack. In the high Himalayan areas, yak is the only pack animal to carry goods of mountaineering people up to the Everest base camp. Transfrontier trade between Nepal and Tibet are mostly done with the help of pack animals.
One of the major contribution of livestock of livestock is to provide manure, a substitute of chemical fertilisers. In 1994/95 the consumption of chemical fertlisers was 181, 578 mt. Chemical are not only expensive but also destroy the soil fertility in the long run. Furthermore, only 30 per cent of the used fertiliser is utilised by the crops and rest is wasted and pollute the river and water resources ultimately.
The best, cheap and reliable sources of fertiliser is bio-fertiliser. Nepal produces 41.4 million MT of livestock manure. Manure not only provides nutrients but also improves the texture and water holding capacity of the soil. Only a small percentage is properly used fro composting.
In the rural areas, the major sources of domestic energy are fuelwood, agricultural waste and dried dungs. The traditional sources of energy comprise over 94 per cent. Per capita consumption of fuelwood is 656 kg per person per year. use of dung-cake for cooking is a common practice. About 8 per cent of the energy comes from animal dungs. Such a practice cause respiratory diseases and infection of the eyes. The use of bio-gas could be an option to dung cakes. The gas produced in a bio-gas plants is methane which could substitute petroleum energy.
Livestock are regarded as an asset. In case of emergency the animals are sold to fulfill the needs of the farmers. Besides, the milk and milk products are major sources to generate cash income for the rural farmers. In the last fiscal year, farmers of the rural areas have earned over Rs 10 million from the sale of milk.
Due to overuse, forest resources and the pasturelands are diversely affected. Forest provides about 40 per cent of the total livestock feed. Every year about 25,000 ha of forest land is denuded. One of the main causes of the degradation of forest vegetation is due to grazing, browsing and trampling effect of livestock. In the forestation sites, over 40 per cent of the newly planted saplings are destroyed by livestock.
Forests are also major sources of foliage and bedding materials. par capita consumption of bedding materials is 460 kg per animal per year and fodder is 655 kg per person per year in hills of Nepal.
The degradation has been accelerated also due to the large number of livestock species. For example, the goats population is 5 times higher than sheep. Goats are considered as a forest destroyer. Goats prefers browsing on twigs and leaves of trees rather than grazing on the vegetation on the ground. Nibbling of main shoots and twigs are detrimental to the young plants. One of the main reason for the rapid desertification of trans-Himalayan region is due to the high population of goats/ chyangra.
In high mountains pasture based livestock production system is found. Livestock are grazed on native pasture lands and forest moving from one place to another throughout the year. During the summer, livestock go to high alpine pasture of up to 5,000 m while in winter livestock remain in lower altitude zone about 2,500 m. Due to continuous grazing without any renovation practices, most of the available pasture lands are deteriorating. The native pasture lands are assumed to produce only 25 per cent of its potential.
The main reason for low production and productivity of the pasture lands are over population and over stocking of the grazing animals. When the number of livestock exceeds the carrying capacity of the grazing lands, over grazing occurs. Selective grazing, continuous grazing and over grazing are detrimental to the survival of vegetation and causing loss in top soil.
Most of the livestock are selective in habit. Yak are observed to dig the ground in search of palatable plant species. When the palatable plant species are grazed completely than the animals graze on relatively less palatable plants. Under extreme feed deficit situation livestock graze on every chewable material to satisfy their hunger. In the Solukhumbu area and other parts of Nepal, the livestock are observed chewing toilet papers and cartons of cigarette and/or other paper due to severe feed deficit situations.
Grazing/ walking of livestock on the fragile ground cause the compaction of soil. In such a compact soil the rain water flows at high velocity causing loss of top soil and landslide. Nepal loses about 240 million cubic meter of soil each year. The estimated soil loss from the unmanaged pasture is about 40-200 mt/ha. Due to overgrazing most of the valuable plant species are being threatened.
Recently, dairy and poultry enterprises are mushrooming around the urban area. The hybrid milch animals, poultry and pigs require high quality feed mainly prepared from cereals and grain by-product which could be used for human consumption. In Nepal, presently 89 livestock feed industries have been established and are producing about 0.4 million mt of animal feed. The major ingredients are maize, wheat, oil-cakes, molasses, fish meal, mineral mixtures and vitamins. If it is assumed only 25 per cent of cereal would be used in livestock feed the total amount which could be as human food would be 0.1 million mt.
Furthermore, these dairy animals and poultry are raised relatively in small shed with poor housing and poor disposal facilities of urine and dung. Dumping of these waste materials in the common places and municipality drainage creates problems of pollution, disease outbreak and environmental degradation. Toxic substance, medicines, vaccines and insecticides are used haphazardly and thrown in the community places which causes pollution and environmental degradation.
Increasing population, rapid urbanization, tourist flow and improved living standard of people have created a high demand for animal protein which has led to over exploitation of the available natural resources, thereby proving to uneconomical in the long un.

High dependency
On the other hand, extreme poverty in the rural areas, less opportunities for alternative income generating sources, lack of infrastructures and lack of appropriate technologies has compelled the farmers to rely on traditional sources of income such as livestock production. To increase the income level of the farmers, the need is to improve the production and productivity of the livestock and effective measures should be taken for the sustainable use of natural resources in on environment friendly manner.

2. Sheep farming: A CASE FOR PROMOTION

2. Sheep farming: A CASE FOR PROMOTION

Rameshwar Singh Pande
(Published in “The Rising Nepal” , Daily National Newspaper, Kathmandu, Nepal, June 23, 1996)

WOOLEN carpet industries play an important role in Nepalese economy. Nepal exports about 3.7 million sq. m of woolen carpet over 37 countries including Germany, Italy\y, UK, Japan, France, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain, the Netherlands, USA and others. The contribution of carpet industries in total overseas export is about 65 per cent.

New intervention
Though sheep farming and woolen goods production are traditionally practiced by the Nepalese people, the export of woolen carpets in international market is a new intervention. Nepal exports Tibetan style carpets blended with Nepalese originality in design, pattern and dye.
When Tibetan refugees migrated to Nepal in 1960’s the traditional woolen carpet industries transformed into commercial, export oriented industries. Export of Nepalese carpet started almost from zero in around 1960’s to about 10 per cent of the total supplies in the world market, at present. Other major suppliers are India, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and turkey. Over 45 per cent of the international market is occupied by two big countries, namely India and China.
During the entire growth period of the woolen carpet industries, however, the traditional sheep farming remained stagnant. Almost all the wool needed for carpet industries international markets is imported. Imports account for about 16,000 mt of raw wool mainly coming from New Zealand and Tibet. The contribution of New Zealand wool in carpet industries is about 70 per cent while about 20 per cent is imported from Tibet. Use of local wool in carpet industries is not more than 5 per cent.
Nepal’s sheep farming and woolen industries have a long history. Sheep farming is a major part of livestock production. There are 0.9 million sheep distributed throughout the country. Over 84 per cent of the total sheep population is found in the Hills and Mountains while the rest is found in the Terai. The sheep are raised mainly for the production of meat and wool.
Woolen industries making Radi, Pakhi, Bakkhu, Kamlo, and local carpets for the domestic use have been there for a time long. However, the practice was confined at the subsistence level and only to fulfill the domestic needs.
The importance of sheep farming was well recognised by the Rana government and a Sheep Development Farm was established in Chitlang, Makawanpur in 2001 BS. After the establishment of the sheep farm various attempts have been made to improve the local production and productivity by upgrading the breeds and improving the feeding, health care and management practices.
Sheep are multipurpose animals which provide meat, milk, wool, hide, manure and pack. Besides their economical vale, sheep are also used for religious purposes. The wool production potential of the local sheep is, however, very low. On an average a sheep produces about 700 gm of coarse wool per year. The total production of raw wool is about 625 mt only. The local wool is of short staple length and coarse type, hence not suitable for quality carpet making. The total production of mutton was about 3067 mt in FY 1994/95 which is about 2 per cent out of the total meat production (0.16 million mt ) in Nepal.
The sheep manure is a valuable source of nutrients to the crops. The total production of manure from sheep was about 0.2 million mt in FY 1994/95. Most of the manure is wasted and only a small proportion is used as a manure and fuel. The castrated male sheep are good pack animals. A castrated sheep can carry 8-10 kgs and can walk continuously for about 2 weeks. Large flocks of pack sheep are seen along the Dang- Surkhet route to interior parts of Rukum, Jajarkot, Dolpa, Humla etc.
Major breeds are Lampucchre, Kage, Baruwal and Bhnglung. The Lampuchhre breed is raised in the Terai and its wool is used for making blanket (Kamlo). Lampuchhre breed comprises about 12 per cent (0.1 million) out of the total population. The Kage breed is raised in mid-hills mainly Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys. These Kage breeds are prolific and are reared mainly for meat and coarse wool production. Kage breed comprises about 21 per cent (0.19 million) out of the total sheep population, the Baruwal breeds is raised in high mountains. Wool production from Baruwal sheep is used for making various products such as clothing, Radi, Pakhi, Galaicha etc. Baruwal breed comprises about 63 per cent (0.6 million) out of the total population. The Bhangung breed is reared in trans- Himalayan region such as Mustang, Manang and Dolpa. Bhanglung breed comprises only 4 per cent (0.04 million). Its wool is of good quality for use in carpet industries.
A major institute for the promotion of sheep is the Department of Livestock Services (DLS). The DLS is promoting sheep farming and wool production through its various district level offices and farms. At present, there are four sheep development farms under DLS; in Makawanpur (Chitlang), Nuwakot (Panchasaykhola), Kaski (Pokhara) and Jumla (Guthichaur).
Presently, research on sheep production is carried out by Nepal Agricultural Research council (NARC) in Jumla Sheep Development Farm. Research work on sheep has also been conducted at Lumle and Pakhribas Agricultural Centres run with the financial assistance of ODA, UK.
Under DLS various programmes are launched to improve the production potential of the local breed. The improved breed like Merino, Polwarth, Rambouilet and Romney are introduced and used for upgrading the local breed. The performance of the progeny with blood level 50 per cent was better and yielded twice in terms of wool and meat production compared to the local breed. Recently, to initiate carpet wool type sheep farming 9 Romney male sheep have been air lifted from New Zealand and are being reared at the Department of Livestock Farm Pokhara and Pansaykhola Nuwakot.
Experiences shows that the use of exotic pure breeds in the Nepalese conditions and introduction of pasture species into the existing native breeds are not very successful. It requires high level of management practices and ideal condition for their normal performance.
Various studies have been conducted by the government, UNDP and others regarding the sheep farming and wool production potential in Nepal.
For the sustainability of woolen carpet industries, it is necessary to explore the possibilities for the import substitute of the carpet wool within the country itself. It we look at the present sheep farming situations, the scenario is frustrating. Major limiting factors to enhanced wool production are small sheep population with low quality wool, scattered production and severe feeds and fodder deficit situations. Such a situation foretells continued dependency on importation of wool for carpet industries.
If initiatives are taken to replace all available sheep population with cross to enhance the productivity of wool, the total wool production would be tripled (i.e. 1,875 mt) compared to the present level of production which is about 12 per cent of the total wool import. Furthermore, in Nepal goats are much preferred species compared to sheep. The population of goats is 5 times more than that of the sheep. If the goat population is replaced with the sheep population (which is neither possible nor practicable) still the population of sheep will be 6.5 million; about half of the Tibet’s sheep population, which would not meet the required quantity of carpet wool in terms of quantity and quality. To sustain the woolen carpet industries, Nepal has to depend continuously on the importation of wool.
One major limitation to increasing the sheep population is the lack of adequate availability of pasture lands. Nepal has 1.7 million ha of natural pastures. The production in terms of quantity and quality is very low. The available pastures are already over grazed and are in deteriorating conditions. There is a very little room to expand the area and increase the productivity mainly due to soil moisture conditions, altitude, snow fall etc.
Wool producing countries like New Zealand have over 50 million sheep producing about 0.5 million mt wool per annum. New Zealand exports raw wool to more than 50 countries in the world. Presently, sheep population in New Zealand is decreasing by 2.3 per cent per annum. Such a negative trend of sheep population could limit the steady supply of raw wool in the future. Similarly, in Tibet the sheep population is only about 12 million and China is itself the largest carpet wool supplier in the world markets.

Promotion measures
Since the last three years, carpet export has remained stagnant mainly due to low standard of its products, use of child labour and use of harmful dyes. During the same period the export of the locally produced woolen goods such as shawls, jackets, coats, pullover, blankets, vests and many other products is showing an increasing trend. This also reveals the importance of woolen products other than carpet in the Nepalese economy. The existing markets of woolen products should be diversified. Therefore the use of local wool and similar products such as jute fibre, Angora wool, pasmina, fur should be widely popularised and quality should be assured. Measures should be taken to ensure the continuing supply of raw wool from the overseas countries as well as initiatives should be taken to promote sheep farming geared to producing wool substitute for carpet weaving in the potential areas of Nepal on a large scale basis.

3. Livestock farming THE YAK & THE HIMALAYAN PASTORALIST

3. Livestock farming THE YAK & THE HIMALAYAN PASTORALIST
Rameshwar Singh Pande

(Published in The Rising Nepal , Daily National Newspaper, Kathmandu, Nepal, June 8, 1996)

YAK is a most attractive and highly useful animal of the high Himalayas. Socio-economic life of the Himalayan people solely depends on yak farming.

HABITAT
That many trade names of cigarette, hotels and cheese are named after yak, reveals yak’s popularity. Yak is similar to cattle. The scientific mane of yak is Bos grunniens. The yak is a male animal. Female yak is called ‘nak. Yak freely crosses with cattle and the progeny is called ‘Chauri’. Male chauries are sterile.
The natural habitat of yak is in the high altitudes of Nepal, China, Mangolia, Bhutan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Myanmar and India. In Nepal, yak/chauries are found in the northern Himalayan districts mainly Taplejung, Sankhuwasabha, Solukhumbu, Dolkha, Sindhupalchok, Rasuwa, Mustang, Manang, Dolpa, Mugu, Humla, Jumla and Darchula. Yak thrives above 2,700 m altitude only. The ethnic groups and communities raise yak/chauries under migratory system on pasture based grazing.
Yaks are multipurpose animals and life without the yak may not be possible in the high Himalayan region. The yak is the only animal to provide protein in the form of milk. Other products of yaks are hide and skin, hair, draught power, dung and cash.
The yak and nak are bigger than local cattle. They have long hairs, especially on lower abdominal parts. The hair colour is black and/or black with white patch. White coloured yaks are rare and expensive. The flywisk of the yak’s tail is called Chammar which is used by the Hindus and Buddhists for ritual performances.
The yak hairs are used for making rope, bags, blankets and for decorative purposes. On an average an adult yak produces 1-1.5 kg of hair per year.
Yak is regarded as ‘ ship of the snow’. Yaks are the sole animals to carry goods and merchandise in high Himalayan districts. The castrated yaks are used for transportation of goods between Nepal and Tibet. An adult yak can carry about 80 kg and could walk for more than 2 weeks continuously. Yaks are, apart from the porters the only means to carry expedition materials up to the Everest base camp.
The yak dung is used as manure and as fuel for cooking purposes. The yak dung also has medicinal value. A research work in DSIR, New Zealand revealed that yak dung contains certain alkaloids which is useful to control baldness.
The accurate population of yak/chauries is difficult to obtain because yaks are reared in remote cold areas under migratory system and the pastoralists are reluctant to give the exact numbers to the surveyors (who are generally governmental staff).
Nevertheless, the estimated population of yak/chauries is about 60,000. Out of the total 10,000 are pure yak and nak. The population of pure yak and nak is rapidly decreasing. As the production performance of pure yak/nak is lower than its hybrid, farmers are reluctant to maintain pure animals. Compared to the purr yak/nak the hybrids are more productive, more docile and thrive in lower altitude of about 2,500 m.
Out of the total population of yak/chauri, about 24,000 are kept for milch purpose. A nak produces about 200-250 lt of milk per lactation. Chauries are high yielder than nak or local cows. Per lactation yield of milk from chauries is about 1,200-1,500 liters The lactation length of nak and chauries is about 6 months and 9 months respectively.
The milk production is highly influenced by the availability of pasture. The pick milk production occurs from July to October when grasses in the pastures grow in abundance. The milk of nak/chauri is not nutritious but also highly priced. The milk is used for making cheese, butter Chhrpi etc.
Yak cheese is a famous dairy product. The very first cheese factory was established in Rasuwa in 1952. Now, there are altogether 20 cheese factories, 10 under government- own Dairy Development Corporation (DDC) and 10 under private sector. These factories are collecting milk from about 20 per cent of the lactating nak/chauri population. Out of 20 yak/chauri raising districts, cheese factories are established in about 8 districts only. In five districts, such as Rasuwa, Dolkha, Solukhumbu, Ramechhap and Sindhupalchok, yak cheese are produced. In Illam, Panchathar and Kavrepalanchok cow milk cheese (Kanchan) and buffalo milk cheese are readily available.
The main consumers of yak cheese are major cities and tourist areas such as Kathmandu, Pokhara, Jomsom, Solu and other parts. Total production of cheese was 185 mt in FY 1994/95. DDC produces 135 Mt and the contribution of private sector is about 50 mt. Present level of production of yak cheese is far its demand. The estimated demand of yak cheese is more than 1,000 mt/year (the statistics of yak cheese production has remained the same until recently).
There is a wide scope for the production of yak cheese in Nepal. Despite the growing demand of the domestic market there is a wide score for yak cheese export in the neighbouring and overseas countries.
Since yak are found in the remote, cold Himalayan regions lacking in physical facilities and infrastructure development, yak rearing has remained as one of the most neglected sectors.
Since the last few decades, attempts have been made to promote yak/chaui breeding through government and non-government organisation, mainly FAO, USAID, ODA (PAC/LAC) etc.
In the governmental sector, department of Livestock services (DLS) and Dairy Development Corporation (DDC) are two major institutes working in the field of yak breeding. The DLS is responsible for the development and extension aspects and the DDC is for the promotion of market and marketing of yak cheese.
DLS has establish two yak farms, located in Solukhumbu and Dolpa. despite the establishment of farms, there is the need for the district level offices of DLS to conduct effective programme on breeding, pasture land improvements, animal health care and training to the pastoralists on improved yak/chauri farming.
Under the existing breeding programme yak bulls are distributed to the farmers. Most of the yak bulls are either imported from Tibet or bred on government farms. Tibetan yaks are of superior quality compared to Nepalese yaks. Since the closure of Tibetan border for the migratory stock in 1988 importation of yak is becoming difficult.
Since 1994, the yak farm in Dolpa has closed down and animals were auctioned. Closure of Dolpa farm has hampered yak breeding and biodiversity conservation works in the country.
The yak/chauri population is rapidly decreasing. Before 1960, the population of yak was estimated to be more than 0.2 million, now the population has dropped by half. The main reasons for reduction of yak/chauri population are: shortage of feeds and fodder especially during winter; closure of Tibetan pasture lands and disease, parasites and predators.
The traditional occupation of raising large herds of yak/chauri are becoming less attractive to new generations. Young people prefer to work as a porter for tourists and are willing to take to other business rather than to carry out traditional system of raising yak/chauri herds. Such a trend has exerted negative impacts on the socio-economy of the region and sustainable yak/chaui farming.
Last winter in Dolpa district alone, over 200 yaks/chauries starved to death inside the sheds due to heavy snowfall. In other areas also a large number of animals died. this remained unreported. If such a trend continues, the yak and nak population will soon vanish from Himalayan region.
In Mustang, Manang, Dolpa, Humla, Mugu and other yak raising areas the yak milk are turned into butter, chhurpi and other milk products which are sold in Thakhola (Mustang) and Pokhara markets. A reasonable amount is sold to Tibet through barter system. There is a wide scope for the installation of yak cheese plants in these regions.
The major limiting factor for yak cheese production, besides remoteness and inaccessibility, is adequate supply of energy. cheese making is a lengthy process and requires large quantity of energy (fuelwood/electricity) and skilled manpower. Use of fuelwood in the large quantity has adversely affected vegetation. In the traditional system, fuelwood is used abundantly. This not only denuded the forests around the existing cheese factories but also affected the valuable flora and fauna of Himalayan region.

Sustainability
As the yak/chauri farming is the only means for the livelihood of the high Himalayan people, more attention is needed to increase the production, productivity and market access through proper conservation of biodiversity in an environmentally manner.

4. Livestock development IN SEARCH O GREENER PASTURES

4. Livestock development IN SEARCH O GREENER PASTURES
Rameshwar Singh Pande

(Published in “The Rising Nepal”, Daily National Newspaper, Kathmandu, Nepal October 4, 1996)

PASTURELANDS are naturally occurring areas dominated by herbaceous vegetation with or without trees. They are major seed resources of livestock and wild ungulates. Natural pasturelands are extensive in the Himalayan region.
Nepal has about 1.7 million ha of natural pasturelands, out of which about 78.7 per cent is located in the northern belt.
Subsistence farming
Livestock production in Nepal is closely integrated with subsistence farming. Every farm family maintains a few heads of livestock for agricultural, nutritional, economic and social needs. The livestock sector contributes about 18 per cent to the national GDP and about 31 per cent to agricultural GDP.
Livestock production is a major economic activity in the northern belt. Animals are raised on a migratory system, moving herds from one pasturelands to another throughout the year.
Due to centuries old continuous grazing, the physical conditions and productivity of pasturelands are deteriorating. Severe feed deficit occurs especially during the winter. It is reported that productivity of natural pasturelands is only 25 per cent of its potential. Pasturelands provide about 70 per cent of total feed supply in the northern belt. As most of the natural pasturelands is situated in the major watershed areas of the main rivers, contribution of pasturelands is important from the soil-water conservation point of view as well.
The number of livestock per household is higher in the northern belt. The average holding of livestock in the northern belt. The average holding of livestock in Nepal is 4.6, whereas in the northern belt the average holding is 8.0 per household. Total ruminants reared in the northern belt is 3.2 m heads, which is 20 per cent of national population. out of total ruminants, yak and sheep play important role.
The northern region is famous for yak cheese. About 18 cheese factory under the dairy development Corporation and private sector are functioning in Nepal. Most of these cheese factories are situated in Rasuwa, Solukhumbu and Dolkha. The total cheese production is about 115,000 kg. The northern region contributes 14 per cent of Nepal’s total milk, 15 per cent of meat and 54 per cent of the wool production.
Depending on vegetation type, the pasturelands of north could be divided into temperate vegetation (altitude between 2,000-3,000 m), sub-alpine vegetation (between 3,000-4,000m), alpine vegetation (above 4,000 m altitude) and steppe vegetation (trans-Himalayan region of Mustang, Manang, Mugu and Dolpa).
Much of the northern region lacks infrastructure, education, health and economic activities. Most of the accessible pasturelands are overgrazed, infested with unwanted weeds and poisonous plants and wearied with erosion and land slides. There is a lack of leguminous species of the pasture vegetation. The productivity of the native pasturelands is too low compared to its potential. The livestock population is too high to sustain its carrying capacity. Livestock graze throughout the year which prevents reproduction and propagation of the vegetation.
Shortage of pastures have tremendously affected livestock feed supply. due to low productivity of pastures, the livestock is forced to consume whatever vegetation is available. Feed deficit is crucial during the winter. ground vegetation and tree foliage are heavily lopped for livestock feed. Severe feed deficit had led to low productivity and poor animal health, which ultimately affects socio-economic life of the northern belt. Deteriorating pasturelands have led to degradation of environmental conditions and soil water conservation. Most of the useful species such as legume components and medicinal plants has been destroyed and the survival are threatened to its existence. Barren and deteriorated natural pasture resources significantly affected on increasing landslide, soil erosion, flooding and loss of soil fertility of the region.
The Department of Livestock Services and Nepal Agricultural Research Council have been implementing a pasture development programme. However, pasture development is a new intervention in Nepal. After the study carried out by the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation in 1952 various activities on livestock development and feed/fodder improvement have been carried out. Between 1960 to 1970 different livestock development farms in Pokhara, Jiri and Rasuwa were established. Similarly,, various cheese factories were established in high altitude regions such as Rasuwa and Jiri. Fodder and pasture development activities were carried out as a part of farms activities and around cheese factories.
To develop pasture and feed resources the government, USAID, UNDP and FAO have implemented various programmes. The Northern Belt Pasture Development Programme (1980 to 1991) was implemented by the Department of Livestock Services in ten districts, Taplejung, Sankhuwasabha, Dolkha, Sindhupalchok, Gorkha, Manang, Mustang, Humala, Dolpa and Mugu. Over 4,000 ha of indigenous pasturelands was improved through promotion of improved species; over 120,000 saplings of fodder trees were distributed and approximately 100 ha of degraded forest land was brought under silvi-pasture development.
Pasturelands are national property utilised by the people since time immemorial, but there is a lack of responsibility towards their production and conservation. Occupation and invasion of pasturelands for personal use has been increasing recently. People are reluctant to invest time and money for improvement of government or community pasturelands even for their own use. The pasture development programme should be carried out through the use’s group. management of the pasturelands should be handed to the community.
Technology and inputs (such as seeds and planting materials) should be provided by the concerned agency at the initial stage.
Improving pasturelands is expensive and time consuming. Due to scarce resources, pasture improvement has received low priority. Most of the pasturelands are difficult and inaccessible due to lack of proper trails, bridges for the livestock and herders. Mule trails and bridges should be constructed to facilitate grazing for migratory herds. Due to lack of drinking water animals have to walk for up to four hours a day. in such a situation, the animals have developed a camel like habit, they drink water as much as they can before they go for grazing. Usually, the major water sources are rivers. Most of the vegetation has been destroyed around the water sources. Drinking water tanks should be erected to help the livestock as well as to protect the local vegetation.
There is a shortage of technical staff in pasture and fodder development activities. Whatever staff are available, they are reluctant to serve in remote districts. Special steps should be taken to motivate people to work in remote areas.
The number of animals is beyond the carrying capacity of pasturelands. On the other hand, livestock are not proportionately distributed. For example, the number of goats is five times greater than sheep. Goats are considered a destroyer of vegetation. proper grazing practices should be followed for the optimal use of natural pasturelands. They should be grazed on a rotational basis, leaving about 25 per cent of the vegetation for re-growth.
The native pasture species are low productive and less palatable compared to exotic pastures. Pasture improvement programmes such as over sowing with potential pasture legumes, grasses should be carried out. Unwanted plants should be eliminated. The most potential species suitable for over sowing into the natural pasturelands are: white clover, cocksfoot, perennial rye grass and other. Theses species are performing well in Rasuwa, Sindhupalchok, Dolkha, Mustang and Dolpa.
Frequent training on pasture production, management and livestock production should be conducted to create awareness towards the feeding management and environmental conservation. Proper research work on native pasture production and management system should be carried out.
Technology generation
Pasture improvement programmes should be carried out by the Department of Livestock Services through effective peoples’ participation. Strong coordination and working linkages should be established with Nepal Agricultural Research Council for technology generation with Department of Forest, Ministry of Population and Environment and local authorities for pasturelands development in a sustainable manner.

5. Transfrontier movement of livestock THE DEPENDENCE STILL REMAINS

. Transfrontier movement of livestock THE DEPENDENCE STILL REMAINS
Rameshwar Singh Pande

(Published in ‘The Rising Nepal’ ,Daily National Newspaper, Kathmandu, Nepal, 29 April 1996)

TRADITIONALLY, transfrontier movement of livestock in between Nepal and Tibet (China) is practiced for pasturing and trading in the northern region. This region comprises altogether 20 high Himalayan districts and consists of 43 percent (6.3 million ha) of the total land area of Nepal about 10 percent of total population. Livestock play an important role in the socio-economy of the high Himalayan northern region. Livestock is regarded as an asset and are the prime sources of milk, wool, draught, manure, pack and cash. The main livestock are yak, chauri, goats and sheep.

Close similarities
There are close similarities in life style, language, religion and custom between the Nepalese and the Tibetan people, in particular, the trans-Himalayan regions such as Mustang, Manang and Dolpa. The northern region is characterized by abundance of high Himalayan snow-covered peaks, steep terrain, remoteness, relatively underdeveloped infrastructure and social activities. crop production is low due to limited amount of cultivable land, severe cold and short growing season. Almost all the northern districts have food deficit situation.
In this region, free movement of human beings and livestock have been practiced since long. Barter system of trading has prevailed in this region. Nepal exports food grains, fruits, timber etc. and imports salt wool and other household items. (but the situation has been reversed these days, Nepal being a deficit country and a quite significant amount of foods, fruits and other goods are being imported from Tibet to Nepal).
The total population of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats are 6.8 m, 3.3 m, 0.9 m and 5.6 m respectively. Out of the total population, the northern region has 18 percent cattle , 20 percent goats and 56 percent sheep. An, about 40,000 of yak and chauries, which are found only in the northern region.
The total production of milk in Nepal is 0.9 million MT, meat 0.16 million MT and wool 624 MT. The northern region contributes 13 percent of milk, 14 percent meat and 56 percent of wool of the total production. About 120 MT of yak cheese is produced in high altitude regions.
Extensive pasture lands are found in this region. Out of the pasture land of 1.7 million hectare, over 80 per cent is located in the northern region. The pasture lands remain covered for about 7-8 months under snow and provide grazing for about 3-4 months a year. However, the lower altitude pastures are used for about 7-8 months by the migratory herds. The natural pasture lands provide over 65 per cent of the total feed supply.
Farmers adopt migratory system. During the rainy season (July to September), livestock are taken to the high alpine pasture, up to the altitude 5,000 m. and during winter livestock graze on lower altitude, around 2,500 m. In such migratory movement, yak never come below 3,000 m. But, crosses of yaks such as the Chauri, spent winter months grazing either in forests or in fallow crop land. Male animals such as yak, Jhopkyo (male chauri), castrated chyangra and sheep are used as pack animal for the transportation of salt and food grains. During winter, flocks of sheep and chyangra come to the town areas of the foot hills.
Due to the century old continuous grazing and high stocking rate, the production and productivity of the pasture lands are declining. The feed deficit is estimated to the over 49 per cent as compared to the demand. Most of the pasture lands are in deteriorating conditions and subject to serious soil erosion and land slides. Moreover, over 40 per cent of the pasture land of Nepal are inaccessible due to lack of mule trails, brides and drinking water sources for livestock.
Compared to the Nepalese side, pasture lands in Tibet are more extensive, more productive and have less snow and rain fall. Transfrontier movement is usually practiced by the farmers of Taplejung, Sankhuwasabha, Dolkha, Sindhupalchok, Gorkha, Mustang, Manang, Dolpa, Mugu, Humla, Bajhanh and Darchula. In the mid-western districts such as Humla and Mustang, animals move into the drier grazing areas of Tibet during the winter season, whereas in the central eastern region of Nepal such as Sindhupalchok and Dolkha, animal seasonally migrate into Tibet during summer. Animal from Tibet also migrate into Nepal during summer and graze in the Kharks (pasturelands) of Humla, Bajhang and Darchula districts.
The traditional migratory system has caused a number of problems such as overgrazing, outbreak of contagious diseases and pests, environmental degradations etc. Since 1960, it was to discourage the transfrontier pasturing by both the respective Governments of Nepal and China. An agreement between government of Nepal and People’s Republic of China was signed on 30., Sep 1983, relating to trans-frontier pasturing. It was agreed to control the numbers of migratory nerds gradually. Grazing facilities were provided to the farmers of 4 districts only, viz. Humala Mustang, Sindhupalchok and Dolkha. A total of 10,000 heads of livestock were allowed to graze for about 6 months during the winter period. Similarly, grazing facilities were provided to about 1,000 heads of Chinese animals to graze in the pastures of Humla, Bhajhang and Darchula. Grazing taxes were imposed by the Chinese authority for migratory herds of Nepal. Nepalese herders have to pay Rs 1.6 (0.2 yuan) per sheep and goats and Rs 6.4 (0.8 Yuan) per horse or cattle as compensation. But no grazing taxes were imposed for the Chinese animals by Nepal. The duration of agreement was for 5 years for the inhabitants of Humla and Mustang districts and 3 years for Sindhupalchok and Dolkha districts. The last date of the agreement was fixed 31 March 1988 for Humla, 30 April 1988 for Mustang, 30 September 1986 for Sindhupalchok and Dolkha respectively. The major pasture lands provided to the Nepalese herders were Swasideu of Yurang county for Humla, Ziyawolosyukang and Ouwore of Jhonga county for Mustang, Jadung district Nyaldung county for Dolkha district. In the memorandum signed in 1988, the agreement was extended up to 1991 for the crucial districts.
To cope with the sever feed deficit situation the Department of Livestock Services had implemented a ten year project” Northern Belt Pasture Development Programme” from 1983 to 1992. The project was implemented in ten districts including the very crucial districts viz. Humla, Mustang, Sindhupalchok and Dolkha. About 4,000 ha of pasture lands have been improved, 532 farmers trained, 39 mule trails and 41 water tanks for livestock constructed. Compared to the severity of the problem, the impact of the programme was insignificant. Out of the total available pasture lands only 0.2 per cent were improved. However, the programme created awareness among the g-farmers towards the improvement of pasture and fodder development and environmental conservation. The efforts of pasture development were constrained by poor people’s participation, difficult mountain terrain, unavailability of appropriate technology, scarce resources and lack of trained manpower.
The geographical location have forces the border inhabitants for example, Limi VDC (Humla), Lohmanthan VDC ( Mustang), Lamabagar VDC (Dolkha), Kimanthanka VDC (Sankhuwasabha) and Sirdibas, Prok, and Lhuchet VDCs (Gorkha) to take their livestock towards Tibetan pasture lands especially during winter. At present, the more crucial districts from feed deficit point of view are Mustang and Humla. In Humla, farmers of Limi are compelled to take about 1,300 heads of livestock towards Tibet for winter pasturing. Similarly, in Mustang, the more crucial VDCs are Lohmangthang, Chhonup and Chhoser where about 4,000 heads of livestock are facing winter feed deficit problems.
Though the problems of pasture improvement in Tibetan plateau are the same, the Chinese authority have developed appropriate technologies for the pasture improvement. The pastures of the Tibetan side are much than ours. However, in Tibet, summer is relatively dry and there is low fodder production in this season. So the farmers of the Yuang county of China (Tibet) have to bring their cattle to Nepalese pasture lands during summer. In Humla, over 5,000 heads of Tibetan stock graze on Limi areas during summer, especially in the Pari-khatka of Muchu village and Chuwa and Nili kanda khark of Thehe village community.

Only alternative
The improvement of pasture and feed resources in the only alternative to uplift the economy of the people living in the northern region. To improve the mutual cooperation and social harmony the agreement on transfrontier pasturing between Nepal and China needs to be reexamined for the betterment of the dwellers along the northern frontier.

6. Chauri production systems in upper slope areas, Sindhupalchok, Nepal

. Chauri production systems in upper slope areas, Sindhupalchok, Nepal
R.S. Pande

(Published in: Pande, R.S. 2004. Chauri Production systems in Upper Slopes Areas, Sindhupalchok, Nepal. Fourth International Congress on Yak, September 20-26, 2004 Chngdu, China, International Livestock Research Institute (www.ilri.cgiar.org)

Summary
The crosses of yak and local hill cow and vice versa are called Chauri, which are the main sources of households’income in Upper Slopes of Sindhupalchok, Nepal. The Chauris are raised under migratory systems in highlands at altitudes from 2500 to 4500 m. There are 131 Chauri herders rearing 2306 heads of Chauris, including six yak bulls in Upper Slopes of Sindhupalchok, Nepal. Shortage of pastures, hardship, low production and lack of veterinary services are the main causes that the herders are abandoning Chauri farming and shifting into other businesses. A field level workshop participated by 33 herders was conduced on 6th February 2004 by NACRMLP to investigate the status and opportunities for the improvement of Chauri production and management. It was revealed that Chauri population and the herd size are decreasing each year compared to those five years ago. The breeding yak become scarce, expensive and have to be brought from Tibet and/or from other parts of Nepal, which are located in 4-5 days walking distance. The availability of pastures also becomes scarce. The oak forest, being a major fodder during winter, has been seriously lopped out and threatened for its existence. The veterinary service is poor. The major Chauri products are Chhurpi (dried yak cheese), butter oil, skin, switch of tail, meat, pack and others. The ghee is consumed locally and/or collected by the traders to export to Tibet. The Chauri herders are finding difficulties to continue the Chauri farming occupations as a means of livelihoods. Interventions to improve the present conditions are urgently needed, otherwise the Chauri/yak farming could be a chapter of history in these areas.

Keywords: Chauri, yak, oak forest, pasture, migratory system, Sindhupalchok, Nepal

Introduction
The crosses of yak (Bos grunniens) and local hill cow (Bos indicus) and vice versa are called Chauri. The Chauris are more productive than female yak and are more adaptive to lower altitudes and are reared at the intermediate zone between cattle and yak (Joshi 1982). Chauri farming is a main source of households’ income in the Upper Slope Areas of Sindhupalchok. (The Upper Slopes Areas of Sindhupalchok district is located about 100 km east-north to Kathmandu - the capital town of Nepal and it borders Tibet, P.R. China). The Chauris are reared under migratory systems, grazing around the Bhairabkund lake areas during summer and feeding oak forest leaves during winter. Due to continuous lopping, the oak forest is threatened to its existing (Pradhan et al. 2002). The herders are abandoning the Chauri farming occupations and shifting into other businesses, mainly due to lack of adequate pastures, low production of Chauris, hardship, low return compared to investment, and poor animal health care services.

Materials and methods
To assess the status and opportunities for the improvement of Chauri production and management a field level workshop was conducted on 6th February 2004 in Upper Slopes Areas (Listikot village) Sindhupalchok, Nepal, participated by 33 (six females) Chauri herders.
The major issues relating to the Chauri farming/management were collected from each of the participants. All participants were asked to write major issues in a meta-card and/or explain to the facilitator to write in a white paper.
All issues raised by the participants were grouped into five major groups viz: 1) trend of Chauri population and the herd size; 2) Chauri breeding practices; 3) pasture and feeding systems; 4) animal health conditions; and 5) Chauri products and its marketing.
The present status, the positive/negative situations before and after five years, major problems and the recommendations for the improvement of each group were analyzed and discussed.

Results and discussion
Trend of Chauri population and herd size
The Chauri population and the herd size are decreasing each year. About five years ago, the population was approximately double (Table 1). Compared to the Chauri population, the number of herders maintains approximately the same during the last five years. However, in Tasitang village the number of the herders has been decreased. About five years ago on average each herder reared 20-25 Chauris but these days a herder is rearing only 10-15 Chauris. For example, in Kyangsing village, there were about 40-45 herders and the population of Chauri was about 1200 five years ago. They are reduced to 800 heads of Chauris and 33 herders.
Each year the production of Chauri calf are also decreasing. The estimated production of Chauri per year is 70-100 only (Tasitang -10; Temathan (Gumba) - 40-50, Kyangsing - 20-40) in the Upper Slopes Areas of Sindhupalchok.
The identified causes for the reduction in the number are: 1) casualty by leopard (e.g. during last year, the casualty of Chauris was over 105 by leopard from Tasitang, Bagam, Chhagam and Kyangsing villages); 2) high incidence of diseases (10-12 deaths each year from Tasitang, Bagam, Chhagam and Kyangsing areas); 3) natural death; 4) live export to Tibet (for meat purpose); and 5) others.
Table 1. Estimated Chauri population and herd numbers in Upper Slopes, Sindhupalchok
SN Village Number of Herd Number of Chauris
1 Kyangsing, Gumba 33 800
2 Bagam, Listi 23 350
3 Chhagam, Listi 11 156
4 Tasitang, Tatopani 6 80
5 Sapukhani, Listi 4 50
6 Temathang, Gumba 33 500
7 Liping, Tatopani 13 220
8 Bokchen, Tatopani 8 150
Total 131 2306

It was discussed that about five years ago the community people had the only option to rear Chauri as a means of livelihoods but nowadays they became selective to choose from various options such as: 1) trading (Tibet-Nepal); 2) migrating to Kathmandu/Tatopani and other places; 3) going Malaysia and/or Arabian countries for employment; and 4) seasonal migration to India.
The new generation does not want to be involved in Chauri farming business because it is very hardy and return is also nominal. It was agreed that even the conditions of pastures would be improved, the Chauri population will remain the same, on the other hand, if the conditions remain the same, the population will reduce drastically.

YAK PRODUCTION IN CENTRAL ASIAN HIGHLANDS
The participants cited an example of Helambu village (neighboring village located in 4-5 days walking distance) where a few years ago the Chauri population was more than 2500 heads but now none is rearing a single Chauri. The same phenomenon could happen in these areas also, if the problem remains the same. The present herders are also keen to sale their herds and want to shift into other businesses. Most of the Chauri herders are keen to replace the Chauris with improved cattle (Jersey and/or Brown Swiss) if cows would be available to them and management skill would be provided.

Chauri breeding systems
Chauris are the products of yak and hill cattle (Aule gai) and/ or Kirko (bull) and Nak (female yak) (Joshi 1982). Most of the yak reared in Upper Slope Areas is the progeny of yak and hill cow.
The yak are brought from Tibet and/or Rasuwa and they are expensive. One adult yak costs about NRs 25000.00-32000.00/each (NRs 75 = 1 US$). There is a shortage of yak bulls also. About three yak bulls are reared in Kyangsing and another three in Tasitang in the Upper Slope Areas (at altitudes of 2700- 2900 m).
The yak bulls are selected based on following criteria: 1) at least three years of age; 2) physically fit, strong and stout; 3) well developed and pointed horn; and 4) white in coat color.
Farmers reported that the Chauri born from “Kirko” (Tibetan cattle) cow and yak is much better than the Chauri from yak and hill cow. There is no systematic approach followed for selection of yak and/or cow for Chauri production. Participants were keen to improve the performance of Chauri through genetic upgrading, and cited the example that one of the herders practiced crossing between Jersey cow and the yak and the Chauri (progeny) is quite good in milk production. However, it is difficult for mating between Jersey cow and the yak. So, herders were proposing A.I. for Chauri production from improved cow and yak.

Pasture and feeding systems
The availability of pastures and fodder is becoming scarce. The Chauri remains in alpine pastures (3000-4500 m) for two months of July and August and the rest of the year in lower altitude oak forest (2500-3000 m). The oak forest has been seriously lopped out and threatened to its existence. Due to the shortage of pastures, the productivity of the Chauris has been decreased significantly and the Chauri farming business is no more beneficial. If the productivity of the pastures would not be improved and/or the supply of forage could not be adequate, the herders will starts abandoning the Chauri farming business within next five years.
The participants identified following measures for the improvements of the pasturelands and forage development:
• Renovation of native pasturelands by over-sowing with improved species (perennial rye grass, cocksfoot, white clover and others).
• Clearance of weeds and fallen trees from the pasturelands.
• Provision for drinking water, trails, bridges for easy access to the pasturelands.
• If the alpine pastures could be improved, the Chauri could stay for three months and will reduce the
• grazing pressure in oak forest.
• The on-farm pasture could be developed between the altitudes of 2500 to 2800 m for Chauris.
• Alpine and/or cold tolerant fodder trees should be planted as a source of fodder.
• Involvement of all herders in the formation of the Central Committee under the Forest User Group for the development of policies for pastureland management.

Animal health conditions
The major diseases are FMD, Red water, infertility and parasites (such as tick, flea, worms and others), which occur mainly during summer season (March/April to June/July). Each year about 10-12 Chauris die from various diseases. There is a lack of veterinary services provider. The only Veterinary Service Center is located in about 4-6 h walking distance. The farmers are adopting some local medicines to cure some diseases, for example, animals got Red water disease are fed on “Chhyang” (a locally brewed alcohol) and mustard oil, Tibetan tea leaves, the excreta of insects collected from trees and others.

Chauri products and it marketing
The major Chauri products are Chhurpi (dried yak Cheese), Ghee (butter oil), Soh-si (by-product of the ‘Dhundre/Theki’ milk bucket and used for soup making), skin (mat), tail-switch (for religious purpose), Jopkyo (for meat and pack) and others. The most of the ghee produced in the areas are consumed locally (by Ani-Gumba at Chhagam) and/or collected by traders to export to Tibet. Most of the Chhurpi produced is sold to the traders, who visit the herds regularly and export to Kathmandu and India. The recent price of the Chhurpi was NRs 440.00 and for ghee NRs 500.00 per Dharni (about 2.5 kg), respectively. Herders are happy with the price and the marketing systems.
Some male Chauri and/or old unproductive Chauris are sometimes exported to Tibet for meat purpose, through illegal way, because the HMG/Nepal regulations do not allow export the live Chauri to other countries. In the other side, the Tibetan government does not allow entering the live animals from the quarantine point of view.

Training needs
The herders identified following topics for the training: 1) field level training to herders in ‘animal health improvement’; 2) quality Chhurpi making training to all Chhurpi makers; 3) improved crossbred cattle farming tour and training; 4) hay making training in situ to the herders; 5) establishment of pasture and fodder tree nurseries; 6) training on fodder conservation such as hay- making; 7) establishment of improved pasturelands for demonstration; and 8) others.

Closing remarks
Development of infrastructures (roads, markets) and easy access to Kathmandu and Tibetan markets has attracted the young generations in other lucrative occupations. The young generations are being attracted towards the Arabian and other countries for seasonal jobs. Present security situations have deteriorated the life of the rural people, especially the younger are reluctant to stay in village areas. On the other hand, the Chauri herders, who keeps the tradition, are finding difficulties to continue the Chauri farming occupations as a means of livelihoods mainly due the acute shortage of feeds and fodder, high incidence of predators, lack of insurance, credit facilities, lack of veterinary services, hardship in Chauri farming business, harsh environment conditions and others. Interventions to improve the present conditions are urgently needed, otherwise the Chauri/yak farming will be a chapter of history in this areas.

Acknowledgements
The workshop is a part of NACRMLP initial activities of Upper slopes community based resource management; directions and support provided by the Team Leader, Dr. Frans Arentz, Community Development Advisor, Mr. Manohar Shrestha, and the support and advice from the Project Director, Mr. David Brett, are highly appreciated. The support provided by Mr. Mingmar Sherpa, Chairperson of the Bagam - Chhagam Forest Users Group, Listikot village, to carry out the workshop is highly appreciated. Thanks to Mr. Tara Pariyar, Mr. Sumba Sherpa and other staff to carry out the field works.

References
• Joshi D.D. 1982. Yak and Chauri husbandry in Nepal. His Majesty’s Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal. pp.177.
• Pradhan S.L., Miller D. and Hitchcock D.K. 2002. Yak crossbred production in the Central Upper Slope Region of Nepal: a community resource management strategy. In: Jianlin H., Richard C., Hannotte O., McVeigh C. and Rege J.E.O (eds), Proceedings of the 3rd international congress on yak held in Lhasa, P.R. China, 4-9 September 2000. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya. pp. 146-157.

7. Livestock, Farmers and Environment

7. Livestock, Farmers and Environment
Rameshwar Singh Pande

(Published in: Environment (Batawaran) A Journal of the Environment, Vol. 1 No. 1, Special Issue on the Occasion of the World Environment Day 1996, Ministry of Population and Environment, Nepal 1996)

1. Introduction
Livestock is closely associated with farmers in social contest and environment in global contest. Livestock sector serves human beings by providing animal protein, agricultural draught power, manure, wool, fur, hair, hide, bones, cash income and supports on social and religious work. However, mismanagement and over population of livestock are creating threat to environmental conservation. Livestock produces ammonia and methane gas which are responsible for the destruction of ozone layer and thus helps in causing global warming, acid rain and environmental degradation.

2. Livestock population and density:
Livestock sector contributes about 15 per cent to the GDP and 31 percent in agricultural GDP (FY 10994/95). The major livestock reared by the farmers are cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep, pigs and horses. Besides the above animals farmers are raising poultry birds such as fowl, duck, pigeon etc. The numbers of livestock is higher in mountain compared to Terai and Hills. The total population of cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep are 6.8, 3.3, 5.7 and 0.9 million respectively. Every farm families maintain few heads of livestock. Even the landless farmers keep some livestock. The average holding of ruminants per families are 4.6 heads.
The livestock density is highest in Nepal, there are 220 numbers of livestock and poultry birds per square kilometer compared with the human density 138.

3.0 Livestock products:
Total production of livestock products are 0.94 million Mt milk, 0.16 million Mt of meat, 383 million numbers of eggs and 624 Mt of wool in 1994/95. The per capita availability of milk, meat and eggs are 48 liters, 8 kg and 18 numbers respectively. The share in calories in total diet is about 16 percent from animal sources.

3.1 Source of farm energy:
Livestock are the major sources of farm energy. The energy provided by livestock are environmental friendly. Almost all the tillage works are performed by bullock power in Terai and hills. There are 27.9 million cattle oxen and 0.21 million heads of buffalo oxen in Nepal which are mainly used for tillage and pulling carts.
In mountain region, livestock are used for transportation of food grains and groceries. A castrated sheep or goat can carry 10-12 kgs/animal and large animals such as Jhopkyo can carry 6070 kgs. These animal can walk continuously for about 15-20 days with pack. In the high Himalayan areas yak is the only pack animal to carry goods of mountaineering people up to the base camp of altitude more than 7000 m. Transfrontier trade between Nepal and Tibet are mostly done by the pack animals in the remote areas.
For a developing nation like Nepal use of petroleum products are very expensive. Nepal uses 0.2 million TOE petroleum products each year. Use of imported petroleum products are not only expensive but are also causes air pollution and environmental degradation.

3.2 Source manure:
On of the major contribution of livestock is to provide manure’s a substitute to chemical fertilizers. In 1994/95 the consumption of chemical fertilizer was 181, 578 Mt. The use of chemical fertilizer is beneficial to improve the production of crops. However, or the sustainability of the fertility status of soil and productivity of crops the reliable sources is bio-fertilizer such as livestock manure. Furthermore, only 30 per cent of the used fertilizer are utilized by the crops and rest are wasted and pollute the river and water resources ultimately. Nepal produces 41.4 million Mt of livestock manure. Manure not only provides nutrients but also improves the texture and water holding capacity of the soil. Only a small percentage is properly used for composting.
In the rural areas, major sources of domestic energy are fuel wood, agricultural waste and dried dungs. These traditional sources of energy comprises over 94 percent. Per capita consumption of fuel wood is 656 kg/person/year.
Use of dung-cake as a fuel for cooking is a common practice in Terai and hills. About 8 percent of the energy comes from animal dung. Such a practice cause respiratory diseases and infection of eyes. The use of bio-gas could be an option of the dung cake. The gas produced in bio-gas plant is methane which could be an substitute of petroleum energy.

3.3 Source of income:
Livestock sector is the major sources of cash generation in rural areas, the sell of live animals and animal products are the major sources of cash income. In the last fiscal year, farmers of the rural areas has earned over Rs 10 million from the sell of milk only.
Livestock are regarded as an asset. The livestock are used as a live bank. In case of emergency the animals are sold to fulfill the needs of the farmers. Besides the live animals milk and milk products are major sources to generate cash income to the rural farmers.
Though the livestock sector is the Nepalese socio-economy is an integral part, mismanagement and over population of livestock has created problems to environmental conservation.

4. Adverse affect of livestock:
4.1 Forest degradation:
Forest is considered as a common grazing ground for the livestock. Forest provides about 40 percent of the total livestock feed. Due to over use of forest every year about 25,000 ha of forest land is denuded. One of the main cause of the degradation of forest vegetation is due to grazing, browsing and trampling by livestock. It is reported that over 40 percent of the newly planted saplings are destroyed by livestock. Besides the grazing, forest are the major sources of foliage and bedding materials for livestock. Per capita consumption of bedding materials is 460 kg/person/year and fodder is 655 kg/person/year in hills of Nepal.
The degradation of vegetation has been accelerated also due to the improportion number of livestock species. For example, the goats population is 5 times higher than sheep. Goats are considered as a forest destructor. Goats prefers browsing on twigs and leaves of trees rather than grazing on ground vegetation, nibbling of main shoots, twigs are detrimental to the young plants. One main reason for the rapid desertification of trans-Himalayan vegetation of Mustang, Manang and Dolpa is due to the high population of goats/chyangra.
4.2 Overgrazing of rangelands vegetation:
Degradation in high mountains, pasture based livestock production system are found. Livestock are grazed on native pasturelands and forest moving from one place to another throughout the year. During the summer livestock go to high alpine pasture up to 5,000 m while in winter livestock remain in lower altitude zone of about 2,500 m. Due to continuous grazing without any renovation practices most of the available pasturelands are deteriorating. The native pasturelands are assumed to produce only 25 percent of its potential.
The main reason of low production and productivity of the pasture lands are over population and over stocking of grazing animals. When the number of livestock exceeds the carrying capacity of the grazing lands, over grazing occurs. Selective grazing, continuous grazing and over grazing are detrimental to the survival of vegetation and causing loss in top soil. Most of the livestock are selective in habit. They select most palatable grasses whenever available. Yak are observed to dig the ground in search of palatable species. When the palatable plant species are grazed completely than the animals graze on relatively unpalatable plants. Under the extreme feed deficit situation livestock graze on every chewable material to satisfy their hunger. In the Solukhumbu area and other parts of Nepal, the livestock are observed chewing toilet papers and cartoons of cigarette and/or other paper due to severe feed deficit situations.
Grazing/ walking of livestock on the fragile ground cause the compaction of soil. In such a compact soil the rain water flows at high velocity causing loss of top soil and landslide. Nepal loses about 240 million cubic meter of soil each year. The estimated soil loss from the unmanaged pasture is about 40-200 mt/ha.

4.3 Urban dairy farming:
Recently, dairy and poultry enterprises are mushrooming around the periphery of urban centres. the high milching dairy animals, and meat animals (poultry and pigs) require high quality feed mainly prepared from cereals and grain by-product which could be used for human consumption. In Nepal, presently 89 livestock feed industries have been established. These factories are producing about 0.4 million mt of animal feed. The major ingredients are maize, wheat, oil-cakes, molasses, fish meal, mineral mixtures and vitamins. If it is assumed only 25 per cent of cereal would be used in livestock the total amount which could be as human food would be 0.1 million mt.
These livestock industries are located in around the urban areas such as Kathmandu, Biratnagar, Pokhara etc and relatively raised on small shed with poor housing and poor disposal facilities of urine, dung and carcasses. Dumping of these waste materials in the common places and municipality drainage creates problems of pollution, disease outbreak and environmental degradation. Furthermore, toxic substance, used medicines, vaccines and insecticides are used haphazardly and thrown in the community places which causes pollution and environmental degradation.

5. Conclusion:
Rapid urbanization, increasing number of tourist, improved living standard of people have created a high demand for food, fodder and fuel wood. Which has ultimately led an over exploitation of the available natural resources, which could be uneconomical in the long run. On the other hand, extreme poverty in the rural areas, less opportunities for alternative income generating sources, lack of infrastructures and lack of appropriate technologies has compelled the farmers to rely on traditional sources of income such as livestock production. As the crop farming is just not sufficient for subsistence, livestock are becoming major alternate income sources. We should not forget that the developmental works towards the fulfillment of the needs of human beings should be carried out without the destruction of environment. Effective measures should be taken to balance between the increased production and productivity of the livestock and the sustainable use of natural resources in environment friendly manner.

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Rs Pande

Meet the author

author avatar Rameshwar S Pande
Mr. Rameshwar Singh Pande is a “Freelance Livestock/Agricultural Consultant” by profession. Born in 1952, November 26, is a Nepali national. He holds “Master of Agricultural Science (MAgrSc) from New Zealand. Mr Pande possess a good track record of ...(more)

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Comments

author avatar Shrean
12th Dec 2011 (#)

thank you for your articles.

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author avatar Dhan Prasad Kharal
3rd Feb 2012 (#)

i am interesting for cow farming . so that how i get government service please mail to me

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author avatar Rameshwar Singh Pande
18th Jul 2012 (#)

That's fine to reprint my book in your website. But you asked the author for its reprint without permission? Please contact me. Thanks

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author avatar Vishal Giri
4th Nov 2012 (#)

Great job ...Rameshwor Ji. and i would like to tank you for your articles..pls keep posting...

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